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It supervised the state's finances, navy, cavalry, sacred matters, building and shipping matters and care for invalids and orphans. The elders were elected by the Assembly from among the oldest Spartan champions. Greek Translation Social Structure. The Gerousia was later recognized the power to indict and convict king. Peloponnesian alliance– Spartans in 6th century BC organized the powerful Peloponnesian alliance, Simah, in which Corinth, Epidaurus, Megara, Aegina and other cities in the Peloponnese and around it joined. The Elders are an independent group of global leaders working together for peace, justice and human rights. 09 Nov 2020. They describe themselves as "independent global leaders working together for peace and human rights". The Gerousia was able to start Procedure Code on its own initiative or at the ephors request (then ephores joinedthe gerousia as judges). In Delphi, for instance, anyone who failed to look after her or his parents … Members of the boule served for one year and no man could serve more than twice in his life, nor more than once a decade. Apella was initially summoned and presided by kings, but from the 5th century BC assembly elected 5 ephores in whose hands was executive authority convening the meeting itself and the management of its operations. The Gerousia was a council of elders (senate) which consisted of 28 elders (gerontocrats) and both kings who were members of The Gerousia by position. The elders were elected by the Assembly from among the oldest Spartan champions. In the Macedonian Kingdom, and later the Macedonian Empire, the body that assisted the king with running the kingdom was called the synedrion, literally translated as "The Congress". Ephors were supervisors. Working both publicly and through private diplomacy, our mission is … The Apella was legislature, that accepted and rejected laws. They vigilantly guarded the aristocratic state constitution. Its own members staffed many boards that oversaw the finer points of these many administrative duties. Groups of local churches are governed by a higher assembly of elders known as the presbytery or classis; … Sparta was an aristocracy that had a Council of Elders. In peacetime they were responsible for the cult and to some legal issues. Oligarchy– Sparta always had two kings, the state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families (probably the two gens had great merits in the conquest of Laconia). They mostly made decisions on criminal matters (the death penalty, persecution). The original council of Athens was the Areopagus. Presbyterian (or presbyteral) polity is a method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.Each local church is governed by a body of elected elders usually called the session or consistory, though other terms, such as church board, may apply. They had the legislative power that enabled them to accuse anyone (even kings). The higher governmental posts, archons (magistrates), were reserved for citizens of the top two income groups. The other 28 men had to selected by the … The Council of Elders (Gerousia) was 30 members of upper class Sparta, over 60 years in age elected by the Assembly of Spartan citizens. As a matter of fact, Greek law laid down severe penalties for offspring who omitted to discharge their obligation. In democracy: Classical Greece …Assembly was set by the Council of Five Hundred, which, unlike the Assembly, was composed of representatives chosen by lot from each of 139 small territorial entities, known as demes, created by Cleisthenes in 507. Sparta was a city in Greece in which the form of the kingdom in the form of joint authority was preserved. The number of representatives from each deme was roughly proportional to its population. [2], After the reforms of Ephialtes and Pericles in the mid-5th century BC, the boule took on many of the administrative and judicial functions of the Areopagus, which retained its traditional right to try homicide cases. The League of Corinth was a federation of Greek states created by king Philip II of Macedon during the winter of 338/337 BC to facilitate his use of unified Greek military forces in his war against Achaemenid Persia. They had a secret police (Crypteia– was established in the 5th century. According to the legend, from period of the king Lycurgus all existing Spartan laws were grounded. By continuing to use the portal, you agree to receive cookies. Their supervisor role amplified so much during the time that it destroyed the prestige and authority of kings. Membership was restricted at this time to the top three of the original four property classes (the Pentacosiomedimni, Hippeis and Zeugitae, but not the Thetes) and to citizens over the age of thirty. Apella was held over the slopes of the Taygetus, where was a good acoustics and shelter from the wind. There were 5 and they were elected from five tribal communities. From the 5th century they had an executive role of their Assembly decision and could call a meeting and the gerousia and made suggestions. The Elders today expressed deep concern about US President Donald Trump’s refusal to adhere to the protocols and processes governing the transition of power, as putting at risk the functioning of American democracy. They had the right to make the final decision if the two kings could not agree. Lycurgus had conceived also political institutions, established after consulting with the Delphic oracle. BC in order to control helots), which was monitored by the Lacedaemonian, Spartiates, helots and Perioikoi communities. The two kings inherited their position and had the same amount of power. [1], Under the reforms of Cleisthenes enacted in 508/507 BC, the boule was expanded to 500 men, made up of 50 men from each of the ten new tribes also created by Cleisthenes. Choices and decisions were carried out by acclamation in Sparta (people or Assembly had unanimously adopted a decision). It heard some cases of impeachment of public officials for high crimes and mismanagement or serious dereliction of duties. Originally a council of nobles advising a king, boulai evolved according to the constitution of the city: In oligarchies boule positions might have been hereditary, while in democracies members were typically chosen by lot (→ Sortition), and served for one year. They started wars and assembled the peace. Apella was held once pro month. Ephors had numerous officials under its administration: monitoring of physical activity, supervision Spartan kitchen, market surveillance, control of the private life of women and others. The Elders hope for a sea-change in US engagement on global challenges . Because of the rotation of members, it was assumed that the boule was free from the domination of factions of any kind, although there is some evidence that richer citizens served out of proportion to poorer citizens. The Gerousia (γερουσία) was the Spartan council of elders, which was made up of men over the age of sixty. The Council of Elders was made up of two kings and 28 other men. Their mandate lasted a year and each year they elected a new ephors. Heidenheim an der Brenz and Hellenstein Castle, Cnut the Great as King of England (1016-1035), Ancient Athens – early politics and government, Ostracism, political practice in ancient Athens, Neanderthal (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis), Valcamonica, Camunian prehistoric culture, Large number of bottles from 6 century discovered near Istanbul. Aristotle: On the Lacedaemonian Constitution, c. 340 BCE (Ancient History Source Book) Aristotle refers to the Gerousia as the Council of Elders. Those in the poorest class could not serve on the boule of 400. The Gerousia had advisory and legislative function, supervised the work of the government and preparing legislative proposals and other decisions which were to be submitted to the general assembly. These were the elders who turned 60 years old elected was for life, and later their mandate reduced to one year. SH website uses cookies to improve user experience. King was succeeded by his the first born son after he came to power. They were responsible for the upbringing of the youth were at the forefront of the Spartan diplomacy. According to Lycurgus' biographer Plutarch, the creation of the Gerousia was the first significant constitutional innovation instituted by Lycurgus. Statement. The Elders The Advisory Council The Elders' Team. The Gerousia had the highest authority in the Spartan state. The members of the Peloponnesian League were autonomous. Athens was a democracy. The former restriction, though never officially changed, fell out of practice by the middle of the 5th century BC. The league guaranteed, among other things, that member states' constitutions in force at the time of joining were guaranteed and that a Synedrion, or congress of representatives, was to meet at Corinth. 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